Jogos na Educação

 

 

Partindo deste documento e do documento “Good Video Games And Good Learning” de James Paul Gee, obtem-se a definição de Jogo segundo HUIZINGA, como sendo: “uma atividade ou ocupação voluntária, exercida dentro de certos e determinados limites de tempo e espaço, segundo regras livremente consentidas, mas absolutamente obrigatórias, dotado de um fim em si mesmo, acompanhado de um sentimento de tensão e alegria e de uma consciência de ser diferente da vida quotidiana.”

tecnologia_educativa

Fonte: Imagem

 

Neste contexto, importa definir os princípios de aprendizagem que os bons jogos devem incorporar.  James Paul GEE, define 16 que se enunciam a seguir:

  1. Identidade – ” No deep learning takes place unless learners make an extended commitment of self for the long haul. (…) players become committed to the new virtual world in which they will live, learn, and act through their commitment to their new identity”
  2. Interação -” books were passive (…) you cannot get them to talk back to you in a real dialogue the way a person can in a face-to-face encounter. Games do talk back. In fact, nothing happens until a player acts and makes decisions. Then the game reacts back, giving the player feedback and new problems.”
  3. Produção – “(…) Players are producers, not just consumers; they are “writers” not just “readers”(…) Players help “write” the worlds they live in—in school, they should help “write” the domain and the curriculum they study.”
  4. Riscos – ” (…) Good video games lower the consequences of failure; players can start
    from the last saved game when they fail. Players are thereby encouraged to take risks,
    explore, and try new things. In fact, in a game, failure is a good thing. (…) School too often allows much less space for risk, exploration, and failure.”
  5. Customização – ” (…) Players can usually, in one way or another, customize a game to fit with their learning and playing styles (…)Customized curricula in school would not
    just be about self pacing, but about real intersections between the curriculum and the learner’s interests, desires, and styles.”
  6. Agência – ” (…) They have a real sense of ownership over what they are doing”
  7. Boa ordenação dos problemas – ” (…) when learners are left free to roam in a complex problem space (…) they tend to hit on creative solutions to complex problems, but solutions that don’t lead to good hypotheses about how to solve later, even easier problems (Elman, 1991).”
  8. Desafio e consolidação – ” (…) Good games offer players a set of challenging problems and then let them solve these problems until they have virtually routinized or automatized their solutions. (…) “.
  9. Informação “na hora certa” e “a pedido – “(…)Games almost always give verbal information either “just in time”—that is, right when players need and can use it—or “on demand”, that is, when the player feels a need for it, wants it, is ready for it, and can make good use of it”
  10. Sentidos contextualizados– “(…) people only really know what words mean and learn new ones when they can hook them to the sorts of experiences they refer to—that is, to the sorts of actions, images, or dialogues the words relate to (Barsalou 1999; Glenberg 1997). This gives the words situated meanings, not just verbal ones.”
  11. Frustração prazerosa – “(…) good games stay within, but at the outer edge, of the player’s “regime of competence” (diSessa 2000). That is, they feel “doable”, but
    challenging.”
  12. Pensamento sistemático – “(…)Games encourage players to think about relationships, not isolated events, facts, and skills. (…) In our complex, global world, such system thinking is crucial for everyone.”
  13. Explorar, pensar lateralmente, repensar os objetivos – “(…)Games (…) encourage players to explore thoroughly before moving on too fast, to think laterally and not just
    linearly, and to use such exploration and lateral thinking to reconceive one’s goals from time to time.”
  14. Ferramentas inteligentes e conhecimento distribuído – “(…) The core knowledge needed to play the game is now distributed among a set of real people and their smart virtual characters.”
  15. Equipas transfuncionais – ” (…) people are affiliated by their commitment to a common endeavor (…) resources [are available] for the whole group if and when they are needed and if and when the player wishes to use them”
  16. Performance anterior à competência – “(…) Good video games operate by a principle just the reverse of most schools: performance before competence (Cazden 1981). Players can perform before they are competent, supported by the design of the game (…)”

 

Mais informações em: academiccolab

 

 

 

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